Unlocking the Potential of Peabody MS Real Estate Investments

Steeped in history and with a vision for the future, Peabody, Mississippi, established in 1855, is not merely a showcase of cultural significance but a beacon of opportunity for savvy investors. Ranking among the top 30 safest cities in America, Peabody MS offers an appealing suburban landscape teeming with real estate investment opportunities in Peabody MS. With a population inching near 53,000, the city’s growth and charm are matched only by its promising Peabody MS real estate market. For those who prioritize security, community, and profit, the neighborhoods of Peabody unfold as a treasure map leading to valuable Peabody MS investment properties. The journey is discerning; positioning your stakes in the right quarters of Peabody could be the cornerstone of a flourishing Peabody MS real estate investment venture. You might also be interested to explore the best neighborhoods to invest in Norwood, Mississippi.

Key Takeaways

New to passive real estate investing?

Explore Ark7 Opportunities
  • Peabody, MS, balances historical allure with a forward-looking approach to suburban development.
  • The city’s status as one of the top 30 safest in America increases its appeal to residents and investors.
  • Diverse neighborhoods in Peabody cater to investors with different goals, from family-focused properties to urban tenements.
  • Strategic investment in the right Peabody neighborhood can maximize ROI.
  • Understanding the nuanced Peabody Mississippi real estate market is key to unlocking lucrative real estate investment opportunities in Peabody MS.

Overview of Peabody MS Real Estate Investment Potential

With a rich tapestry of historical growth and a modernized infrastructure, Peabody, Mississippi embodies a compelling blend of tradition and progress, marking it as a hotbed for real estate investment opportunities. Investing in Peabody Mississippi real estate is more than just purchasing a home; it’s a strategic move towards being part of a community that promises safety, development, and a flourishing environment suitable for families and businesses alike.

Peabody’s Growth and Development

The journey from its origins as a humble farming community to a bustling suburban enclave is a testament to Peabody’s growth and development. This transformation has not gone unnoticed by those looking for Peabody MS property investment opportunities. With an expansive shopping mall and a thriving industrial park serving as keystones, Peabody has positioned itself as a magnet for top-tier medical and technology companies, further bolstering its profile as an investment-worthy locale.

Safety and Crime Statistics in Peabody

For individuals and families considering a move or an investment in property, the safety of a community weighs heavily on their decision. Here, Peabody sets itself apart, boasting an “A” safety rating from Areavibes.com, with crime rates that sit 57% below the national average. This stellar safety record not only enhances the quality of life but also solidifies confidence in the Peabody MS real estate market.

Real Estate Market Trends in Peabody MS

Delving into the dynamics of Peabody’s real estate landscape, investors will find a variety of options ranging from charming single-family homes to modern condominiums. This assortment ensures that whether one’s investment strategy is based on diversification or specialization, Peabody’s real estate market can accommodate it. Indeed, the local market analysis reflects a trend of healthy property appreciation, signaling a robust arena for Peabody MS property investment.

  • Average Single-Family Home Price: $560,000
  • Average Condominium Price: $380,000
  • Projected Real Estate Market Growth: 3.5% Yearly
  • Average Rental Rate: $2,000 – $3,700
  • Safety Rating: A (57% lower crime rate than National Average)

With its combination of strong safety ratings, diverse real estate offerings, and positive market growth trends, Peabody MS stands as a beacon for investors and homebuyers alike. It is not only a place to call home but also a vessel for potential and profitability.

West Peabody: A Prime Location for Family-Oriented Investments

When it comes to choosing the top neighborhoods to invest in Peabody Mississippi, West Peabody emerges as a leading contender, attracting families and investors alike with its blend of residential charm and community amenities. With an attractive mix of medium to large-sized homes and an environment conducive to family living, this area represents a significant part of the Peabody MS real estate market analysis for both homebuyers and investors.

Median Real Estate Prices and Rental Rates

Anchored by its well-appointed residential offerings, West Peabody boasts median real estate prices around $560,000, positioning it as a mid-tier, family-friendly option in Peabody’s real estate landscape. The average rental rates floating around $2,700 affirm the neighborhood as a prudent choice for generating stable rental income. This appealing combination of property ownership cost and potential earnings power underscores West Peabody’s status as a savvy investment choice.

Amenities and Schools in West Peabody

The allure of West Peabody goes beyond its homes, with Lieutenant Ross Park and Crystal Lake Pond adding layers of recreational appeal to the area. The presence of a sports field, bike paths, a pond with an eye-catching colored-light fountain, playgrounds, and open green spaces creates a vibrant community hub that draws in families. Education is also a forefront concern, made evident by esteemed institutions like Covenant Christian Academy and John E. McCarthy Elementary, further bolstering the neighborhood’s reputation as one of the top neighborhoods to invest in Peabody Mississippi.

South Peabody: Affordable Investment Opportunities

South Peabody, nestled within the inviting landscape of Peabody, Mississippi, offers a remarkable chance for investors to capitalize on the combination of affordability and quality living. With properties reflecting a median price of $499,000 and rentals averaging at $2,000, this neighborhood brims with Peabody MS investment opportunities that suit a diverse investor portfolio. In the heart of this tranquil community lies the serene Browns Pond, crowned by the picturesque Lakeshore Park, where nature and leisure harmonize to create an attractively peaceful environment.

Lakeshore Park and Local Attractions

At the core of South Peabody’s charm is Lakeshore Park, offering a retreat where locals connect with nature through activities such as spotting local wildlife and traversing the area’s hiking trails. It’s not just the allure of green space that calls to those seeking Peabody MS property investment; the area’s local attractions add layers of liveability that resonate with potential tenants and homeowners alike.

Investment Properties and Market Analysis

The magnetic draw of South Peabody does not end with its natural setting. Investment properties here promise a blend of value and growth, supported by amenities including award-winning schools such as Magical Beginnings preschool and Captain Samuel Brown Elementary. This educational excellence, combined with the area’s innate tranquility and access to local markets, makes South Peabody a gem for those eyeing real estate investment. A focused market analysis of property values and community offerings cements this neighborhood as a hotspot within the Peabody MS real estate market, inviting investors to plant seeds of prosperity in fertile ground.

  • Median Property Price: $499,000
  • Average Rental Rate: $2,000
  • Key Attractions: Lakeshore Park, Browns Pond
  • Top Educational Institutions: Magical Beginnings, Captain Samuel Brown Elementary
  • Appeal: Affordable investment with quality lifestyle options

Proctor: Historical Charm with Modern Appeal

Nestled within the Peabody Mississippi real estate market, Proctor stands out as a suburb that seamlessly merges its rich historical roots with contemporary suburban comfort. This district, steeped in historical charm, is home to the iconic John Proctor’s house, a name intimately connected with the notorious Salem Witch Trials. The allure of history is coupled with modern amenities, blending well to create an attractive enclave for those exploring Peabody MS investment properties.

The balance between the old and the new makes Proctor an appealing option for real estate investors and homebuyers alike. This is especially true for retirees and those seeking a harmonious community feel augmented by modern conveniences such as the Salem Country Club and the nearby North Shore Mall. Here, residents and investors find not just a place to settle but an opportunity to engage with a close-knit community surrounded by the comforts of suburban life.

Real Estate AspectCharacteristic Details
Median Selling Price$420,000
Average Rental Price$3,700
Historical SignificanceConnection to Salem Witch Trials via John Proctor’s House
Modern AmenitiesSalem Country Club and Proximity to North Shore Mall
Neighborhood AppealPerfect for Investors and Retirees Seeking Community Engagement

Investing in Peabody MS real estate, particularly in the Proctor neighborhood, involves striking a delicate balance between embracing historical narratives and endorsing contemporary lifestyles. Properties here are reasonably priced and offer substantial rental potential, which delightful prospects for long-term investment. The inherent charm and updated amenities present in Proctor underpin the area’s reputation as a hidden gem in the evolving Peabody Mississippi real estate market.

A deeper dive into the character of Proctor reveals the underlying reasons for its burgeoning status in the world of Peabody MS investment properties. It’s not solely the average selling price of homes or the attractive rental rates that draw investors to Proctor but the neighborhood’s ability to offer a lifestyle that is both reflective of a storied past and filled with contemporary convenience—a duality that speaks to a broad spectrum of potential residents.

Downtown Peabody: Urban Living with Investment Upside

At the pulsating heart of the city, Downtown Peabody offers an urban living experience that is both vibrant and enticing to potential real estate investors. A mix of historic charm and contemporary amenities, downtown is a canvas painted with business and residential opportunities, impressing those drawn to the energy and convenience of city life. Known for an assortment of apartment buildings that appeal largely to renters, this area spotlights the real estate investment opportunities in Peabody MS for those keen on tapping into the urban rental market.

Cost of Living and Rental Yields in Downtown

Investor focus zeroes in on downtown’s captivating dynamic of affordability coupled with strong rental yields. With a median real estate price positioned at $380,000 and an average rental figure of $1,700, Downtown Peabody presents an attractive prospect for fostering a fruitful Peabody MS real estate investment. The affordability extends across living expenses, allowing renters and homeowners to enjoy urban life without the financial strain associated with many other city centers across the nation.

Entertainment and Cultural Hotspots

Entertainment and culture intertwine in Downtown Peabody, where establishments like Metro Bowl offer a spot for social gatherings and leisure. For those with a taste for the arts, Peabody Black Box and the Peabody Historical Society & Museum provide enriching experiences that anchor the community and culture in the downtown area. These venues do not just serve as entertainment outlets; they forge a cultural identity that increases downtown’s desirability for both dwellers and investors seeking real estate investment opportunities in Peabody MS.

Top Neighborhoods To Invest In Peabody Mississippi

Identifying the top neighborhoods to invest in Peabody Mississippi hinges on several critical factors, such as community safety, education quality, local amenities, and prevailing real estate market trends. With diverse, appealing characteristics and attractive returns on investment (ROI), neighborhoods like West Peabody, South Peabody, and Downtown Peabody not only offer suitable environments for diverse resident demographics but also present lucrative Peabody MS investment opportunities for discerning investors.

Key Factors Driving Investment in Top Neighborhoods

Investors examine vital neighborhood attributes when evaluating potential investment areas in Peabody. These attributes, which influence investment decisions, include:

  • **Safety Ratings**: Neighborhoods with lower crime rates often lead to higher property values and stable rental incomes.
  • **Quality of Schools**: Areas with prestigious educational institutions tend to attract families, boosting the demand for housing.
  • **Local Amenities**: The presence of parks, entertainment options, and essential services increases a neighborhood’s desirability.
  • **Real Estate Market Trends**: Understanding current and future market trends is crucial for forecasting potential ROI.

Comparing Peabody’s Best Neighborhoods for ROI

To provide a clearer perspective on where the best Peabody MS investment opportunities may lie, a comparative analysis of key neighborhoods is essential:

NeighborhoodSafetySchoolsAmenitiesMedian Property PriceAverage Rental Rate
West PeabodyHighTop-ratedExtensive$560,000$2,700
South PeabodyHighExcellentAmple$499,000$2,000
Downtown PeabodyModerateVariedDiverse$380,000$1,700

Analyzing the data reveals that neighborhoods such as West Peabody and South Peabody are highly favorable for family-oriented investments, thanks to their safe environments and commendable school systems. Contrastingly, Downtown Peabody boasts a more urban appeal with cultural richness, attracting investors with an interest in the city lifestyle and the growing rental market. The combination of competitive property prices and potential rental incomes, balanced with community features, underscores the investment opportunities in Peabody MS and helps investors pinpoint the neighborhoods that align best with their goals for max ROI.

Real Estate Investment Opportunities in Peabody MS

The city of Peabody, MS, unfurls a canvas of diversity for property investors. It’s not just about buying a piece of Peabody – it’s about aligning with the tangible vibes of growth, safety, and prosperity that envelop the town. With various types of properties ranging from cozy single-family homes and modern condos to sprawling multiplexes, the real estate market here pulsates with opportunities for every class of investor. Astute investors understand that selecting the ideal property hinges on strategic intentions – be it reaping the benefits of long-term residential rentals or tapping into the lucrative vacation rental market.

Types of Properties Ideal for Investment

Strategic Peabody MS real estate investment calls for an understanding of property types that dovetail with the investment goals. Those aiming for stability tend to lean towards residential properties, which offer both long-term tenancies and the promise of equity growth. Investors thirsting for more immediate returns eye the vacation rental scene, driven by Peabody’s inviting community and steady influx of visitors. Condos attract the urban demographic, whereas single-family homes are beacons for families aspiring to the American dream in a secure suburbia.

Navigating the Peabody MS Property Market

The route to investment success in Peabody entails more than an understanding of property types; it involves a deep dive into the depths of the market itself. Harnessing the essence of the local real estate market analysis yields valuable insights into property valuation and rental market trends. What drives desirability and, consequently, investment success is not just the bones of a building but its heartbeat – the proximity to schools that promise futures, the verdant parks beckoning for leisurely strolls, and the seamless connectivity to the hustle and bustle of urban settings. Understanding these nuances steers a course through the complex waters of Peabody MS real estate market analysis, leading to ports brimming with potential and profitability.

  1. Assess local property values to find worth beyond the price tag.
  2. Scrutinize rental rates to envisage potential income streams.
  3. Analyze occupancy rates to anticipate market demand.
  4. Probe into market appreciation potential for long-term gains.
  5. Consider proximity to amenities, schools, and transportation as catalysts for property desirability.

Peabody MS Property Investment: The Path to Financial Growth

The quest for financial prosperity often leads savvy individuals to the world of real estate investment. In the charming city of Peabody, Mississippi, this quest is met with considerable promise thanks to its attractive suburban appeal and dynamic market. Investing in Peabody Mississippi real estate presents more than just a dwelling for homeowners; it opens up avenues of financial growth and stability for investors looking to bolster their portfolio. Whether it’s the appeal of a family-friendly community or the lure of Peabody MS investment properties, the potential for long-term capital gains and steady rental income is tangible.

Peabody’s consistent development, rooted in its rich history and projected future growth, offers a stable foundation for property value appreciation. The city’s favorable crime rates sing a compelling safety siren song to prospective residents, while its strong schooling options add an educational cornerstone to the community. These pillars of social infrastructure contribute to both the present allure and future promise of Peabody MS property investments.

Yet, the secret to real estate success lies in the strategic selection of the right neighborhoods and property types, aligning one’s financial aspirations with the town’s growth narrative. With a focused investment in handpicked locales, one can harness the city’s strengths—an approach that yields a portfolio diversified in both form and function, aimed at reaping the fruits of long-term value and rentability.

Let’s distill the essence of Peabody’s investment landscape through a comprehensive analysis spotlighting the city’s notable areas:

Investment LocaleAdvantagesProperty Median PriceRental Income Potential
West PeabodyFamily-friendly, Parks, Top-rated Schools$560,000$2,700/month
South PeabodyAffordability, Lakeshore Park, Quality Schools$499,000$2,000/month
Downtown PeabodyUrban vibe, Cultural landmarks, Lower Entry Price$380,000$1,700/month

Each neighborhood holds unique advantages that cater to differing investor strategies and target demographics. For instance, West Peabody’s emphasis on family-centric living and education makes it ideal for those seeking to attract long-term family tenants. Conversely, South Peabody’s balance of affordability and quality living creates a sweet spot for investors looking to maximize ROI without stretching budgets. As for Downtown Peabody, its urban energy coupled with cultural landmarks may appeal to investors aiming to tap into the city-center rental market.

The asynchronous melody of Peabody’s neighborhoods forms a symphony that resonates with a wide spectrum of investment preferences. This harmonization underscores the multifaceted nature of the Peabody MS real estate market and affirms its stature as an investment destination worthy of exploration and engagement.

How to Choose the Right Neighborhood for Your Investment in Peabody

Embarking on a journey through the Peabody Mississippi real estate market reveals an array of Peabody MS investment opportunities. Selecting a neighborhood that resonates with your investment goals demands a meticulous approach. It involves analyzing several pivotal factors, each playing a significant role in the potential success of your venture. From lifestyle amenities to local infrastructure, every aspect contributes to the holistic appeal of an area. In this section, we will delve into the intricacies of choosing a neighborhood that aligns with your investment blueprint in Peabody, MS.

Assessing Neighborhood Attributes

The essence of a neighborhood is depicted in its attributes, which act as markers for investment viability. Location convenience is at the forefront, providing accessibility and ease for residents. Green spaces contribute to the residents’ quality of life, offering serene retreats amidst urban sprawl, while historical significance enriches the community’s heritage, establishing a sense of belonging. Add to this the vibrancy that comes with an array of cultural offerings, and you get a neighborhood alive with potential. Such features not only elevate the daily living experience but also increase property desirability, an important consideration for any investment property.

Understanding Local Demographics and Future Prospects

Painting a comprehensive picture of Peabody’s investment landscape necessitates a deep understanding of the local demographics. Analyzing factors such as family composition, income levels, and education preferences allows investors to identify regions that are well-aligned with their property type and investment approach. This demographic blueprint, when viewed in the light of anticipated city planning and developments, can shed light on long-term investment strengths. Forward-thinking investors take these projections into account, poised to optimize their return on investment in the Peabody community, which continues to bloom.

You are tasked with not just finding a property but unearthing a locale where growth, prosperity, and stability intersect — a neighborhood in Peabody, MS that promises a future as resplendent as its past. Begin this endeavor backed with research and a strategic mindset, ensuring your investment decisions in Peabody not only reflect current trends but also encapsulate the area’s potential for a rewarding tomorrow.

Peabody MS Investment Opportunities: A Comparative Market Analysis

Investors eyeing the Peabody MS property landscape have a choice that is quite profound: delving into residential or commercial domains. Each category comes with its own set of challenges and perks, shaping the fabric of long-term real estate strategies in this evolving market. A deep dive into a comparative market analysis offers insights that resonate with seasoned and fresh investors alike, providing clarity to inform their portfolio choices in Peabody MS.

Investing in Residential Vs. Commercial Properties

When considering Peabody MS property investment, residential properties continue to be a mainstay, offering enduring revenue streams through rentals to those focused on stability. On the flip side, commercial properties stand as high-stake players, offering potentially larger returns that come with a higher risk threshold. One’s investment temperament and fiscal objectives should influence the direction in this vibrant market landscape.

Property TypeRental Income PotentialInvestment StabilityLong-term AppreciationMarket Volatility
CommercialVariableMediumDepending on Market CyclesHigh

Peabody MS Market Predictions and Long-Term Outlook

Predictive models and Peabody MS market predictions lean towards the north, hinting at continued expansion bolstered by steadfast development and the escalating quest for housing. This projection shores up investor confidence with the auspicious notion of sustained appreciation in both property value and rental revenues. The future sees Peabody MS not merely as a benefiting recipient of market trends but as a driver of its own economic foretelling.

  • Population growth and urbanization trends indicate an increased demand for residential properties and favorable rental markets.
  • Commercial property investments hinge on the economic pulse of the area, with technology and medical industries offering a robust foundation.
  • The long-term outlook shines bright, banking on proactive city developments, infrastructure improvement, and a potent return on investment.

The tapestry of Peabody’s investment scene is rich with opportunities that beckon with potential gains. It is a narrative of growth and resilience set against the suburb’s historical fabric. In the end, investors that navigate these waters with due diligence, bolstered by the market’s promising future, can anticipate anchoring their wealth in portfolios that stand the test of time and economy.


As we encapsulate our journey through the diverse neighborhoods of Peabody, MS, we look back at a tapestry woven with potential and promise. The avenues for Peabody MS real estate investment are as varied as the town itself, teeming with unique opportunities that cater to a multitude of investor profiles. Each neighborhood, with its individual charm and amenities, serves to entrench the fact that careful selection and strategic foresight are keys to maximizing investment returns.

Also, feel free to check out the best neighborhoods to invest in Abington, Mississippi.

Maximizing Your Real Estate Investment in Peabody

To fully harness the wealth of prospects in Peabody’s neighborhoods, an investor should engage with regions that resonate not only with their financial aspirations but also with the emerging patterns of growth and development across the city. Central to this endeavor is the proficiency with which one conducts a market analysis, understanding the variances in rental demand and rates, and melding this knowledge with the cultural and communal beats of Peabody. Whether it’s the family-centric avenues of West Peabody, the affordable charms of South Peabody, or the vibrant pulse of Downtown Peabody, the town’s makeup ensures it stands out amongst the Best Neighborhoods To Invest In Peabody, MS.

Final Thoughts on Peabody’s Investment Landscape

In conclusion, investing in Peabody’s real estate is more than a mere fiscal transaction; it’s a strategic alignment with a community known for its safety, engagement, and vibrancy. Peabody beckons with opportunities ripe for discovery, offering a stable platform for those who yearn for a rewarding ROI. Steered by an informed approach, investors can weave their path through the promising landscape of Peabody MS real estate investment, planting seeds that are anticipated to burgeon into a bountiful future. With this comprehensive overview, it is our hope that your next investment step is taken with confidence, in a place where history and modernity align to offer a fulfilling investment journey.


What are the best neighborhoods to invest in Peabody, MS?

The top neighborhoods for investment in Peabody, MS, include West Peabody for family-oriented properties, South Peabody for affordable investment opportunities, Proctor for its historical charm with modern appeal, and Downtown Peabody for its urban living environment and investment upside.

How has Peabody’s growth and development influenced real estate investment?

Peabody has transitioned from a simple farming community to a vibrant suburb with a variety of amenities, leading to an increased demand for housing and a rise in property values. This growth has made Peabody an attractive area for real estate investment, offering potential for healthy returns on investment.

What safety and crime statistics should I be aware of when investing in Peabody?

Peabody ranks as one of the top 30 safest cities in America, with crime levels 57% below the national average. This safety rating enhances the appeal of the city for families and retirees, making real estate investments more attractive in the area.

What are the real estate market trends in Peabody MS?

The Peabody real estate market shows promising trends, with property prices demonstrating healthy appreciation over time. Investors can find a variety of investment properties in Peabody, from single-family homes to condos, complementing different investment strategies.

What are the median real estate prices and rental rates in West Peabody?

West Peabody has median real estate prices around $560,000 and average rental rates of $2,700. This area is particularly attractive for family-oriented investments due to its medium to large-sized homes and excellent local amenities.

What amenities and schools make West Peabody attractive for investment?

West Peabody is home to attractions like Lieutenant Ross Park and Crystal Lake Pond, along with highly regarded schools such as Covenant Christian Academy and John E. McCarthy Elementary, making it a desirable neighborhood for families and investors alike.

What kind of investment properties and market analysis can I find in South Peabody?

South Peabody offers a range of property types, typically more affordable than other areas, with median prices at $499,000 and rental rates at about $2,000. Its natural attractions and educational institutions provide a balanced investment potential for those seeking tranquil settings.

What is the historical significance and modern appeal of Proctor for real estate investment?

Proctor offers a unique blend of historical sites, such as John Proctor’s house, and modern conveniences like Salem Country Club and proximity to the North Shore Mall. This combination of suburbia and history attracts a range of investors, including those interested in cultural richness and suburban comfort.

How do the cost of living and rental yields in Downtown Peabody influence investment?

Downtown Peabody has a median real estate price of $380,000 with rentals at $1,700, offering a more accessible entry point for investors. With a majority renter population, downtown is ideal for those looking to invest in rental properties with a steady income potential.

What are the entertainment and cultural hotspots in Downtown Peabody?

Downtown Peabody is bustling with businesses, restaurants, and entertainment venues like the Metro Bowl as well as cultural institutions such as the Peabody Black Box and Peabody Historical Society & Museum, adding to the area’s vibrancy and investment appeal.

What factors are driving investment in the top neighborhoods of Peabody?

Key factors include the safety rating, quality of schools, local amenities, and consistent growth of the city’s infrastructure. These factors contribute to stable property value appreciation and make certain neighborhoods, like West Peabody and Downtown Peabody, particularly attractive to investors.

How do I navigate the Peabody MS property market for the best investment opportunities?

To navigate the market effectively, investors should perform thorough market analysis, be aware of rental demands and rates, and have a deep knowledge of the local area. Such insight can identify which properties align with their investment strategies and growth potential.

What are the prospects of investing in Peabody MS real estate for financial growth?

The prospects are strong, given the city’s favorable crime rates, robust market dynamics, and ongoing development. This foundation for property value appreciation establishes Peabody as a viable location for building a real estate portfolio focused on long-term gains and steady rental income.

How should I choose the right neighborhood for my investment in Peabody?

Investors should assess neighborhood attributes, such as location convenience, green spaces, historical significance, cultural offerings, and understand local demographics and education preferences. Considering future city planning can also shed light on the long-term investment potential of a neighborhood.

What are the differences between investing in residential vs. commercial properties in Peabody?

Residential properties traditionally offer a more consistent income stream through rentals, whereas commercial properties can provide the chance for larger, though sometimes more volatile, returns. Investors need to weigh the expected investment performance and risk factors associated with each property type.

New to passive real estate investing?

Explore Ark7 Opportunities

Source Links

Scroll to Top